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发表于 2020-4-20 15:37:53 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
返回 ITIL 4理论与实践整体知识体系中文版发布文件汇总
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# a2 F% O8 x/ `& H- Y) u" Q8 N6 t服务管理与共同创造价值有关。技术用于支持价值共创,但是在IT行业中定义价值可能具有挑战性。过去,很多精力都集中在成本效益性,基本功能或创新上。但是,当前,速度和灵活性是有价值的服务和价值较低的服务之间的区别。将来,这可能会转移到诸如安全,以人为本,自动化程度提高等领域。此外,由于价值的定义在不断变化,因此应不断对其进行修订和澄清。

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2 J" ?5 j) B! D0 {& b+ b9 t/ |ITIL 4使用整体方法来构建和修改从需求到价值的技术使能服务。该出版物是关于利用服务管理,适应和采用最佳实践,以及使用ITIL 服务价值系统(SVS)框架来促进组织中价值的共创。对于在技术使能服务的广泛范围中工作的人员,该出版物是实用指南。它提供了明确的指南,说明如何通过ITIL Foundation构建和协作设计,构建的工作,以及支持集成有效的产品和服务。
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ITIL 4描述了服务价值链的六个活动。这些活动可以通过各种方式组合以创建价值流。本出版物涵盖了这些活动的集成,以便能够创建,交付技术使能产品和服务,运维和持续改进。重要的是要了解,没有统一的方法可以成功交付服务。背景,要求和资源因组织而异。服务管理的成功需要务实和创造力,而不是教义和教条。7 m+ C, N/ f1 X( J1 x) s

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1 L2 `2 }$ w2 E9 e$ k; \该出版物不仅描述了如何全面构建和管理价值流,而且还描述了如何在价值流中包括持续改进迭代和反馈循环。它探索了诸如开发,测试,知识,客户和员工反馈,新技术,发包以及工作管理方式等领域。这样,它反映了处理服务管理的新方法。; Y" s) [" _/ q# T
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不需要放弃有关IT和服务管理流程的先前知识。这些知识中的大部分仍然有用,可以将其重点放在更广泛的背景实践上。为了应对不断变化的世界,IT和服务管理需要以适当的方式灵活地以新方式使用。今天的服务管理需要开放的思维方式和更协作的工作方式。随着价值共创的实践和方法不断发展,IT,数字化和服务专业人员需要通过发展其技能,知识和卓越定义来保持最新。因此,本出版物着重于个人和团队的专业知识文化和服务意识,并将研究价值和确保可持续性的方法。" l( ]  i3 @) [- W& x' e. N
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Service management is about co-creating value. Technology is used to support value co-creation, but defining value can be challenging in the IT industry. In the past,much of the focushas been on cost effectiveness, basic functionality, or innovation. Currently, however, speedand flexibility are thedifferentiators between valuable and less valuableservices. This may shift in the future to areas such as security, human centricity, increased automation,etc. Moreover, as thedefinition of valueis continually changing,it should be continually revisedand clarified.+ O& D! o& T9 r* A% K9 ^  T
ITIL 4 takesa holistic approach to buildingand modifying technology-enabled services from demandto value. This publication is about utilizing servicemanagement, adapting and adopting bestpractices, and usingthe ITIL service value system (SVS) framework to facilitatevalue co-creation in organizations. Thepublication is a practical guide for those who work within the broad scopeof technology-enabled services. It provides clear guidance on how to collaborate and coordinate effortsto design, build, and supportintegrated and effectiveproducts and services, building from ITIL Foundation.  B7 S% B' ?: n. _% Z
ITIL 4 describes a service value chain of six activities. These activities can be combinedin various ways to create value streams.This publication coversthe integration of these activities in orderto enable the creation, delivery, operation, and continual improvement of technology-enabled productsand services. It is important to understand that there is no uniform approach to successful service delivery. Context, requirements, and resources vary across organizations. Successin service management requires pragmatism and creativity, not doctrineanddogma.
; m" E5 O, n  qThis publication describes not only how value streams can be built and managed holistically but how continualimprovement iterations and feedbackloops can be included in value streams.It explores areas such as development, testing, knowledge, customer and employee feedback, new technologies, sourcing, and waysof managing work.In so doing, it reflects new ways of approaching service management.
7 d6 u  I- Z% `1 BPrevious knowledge regarding IT and service management processes does not need to be discarded. Much ofthis knowledge is still usefuland can be refocused on the widercontext of practices. In response to an evolvingworld, IT and service management need to be used appropriately, flexibly, and in new ways. Service management today requires an open mindset and more collaborative ways of working. As the practices and approaches for the co-creation of value are constantly evolving, IT, digital, and serviceprofessionals need to keepup to date by developing their skills, knowledge, and definitions of excellence. This publication therefore focuses on individualand team professionalism, culture, and servicemindset, and will examine the value and methodsfor ensuring sustainability.# q- E9 o) d, N
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Service relationships require many and varied interactions between individuals and groupsboth within and betweenorganizations. Individuals and organizational structures:" _, ?! H% w% h
Functional Theseare typically hierarchical arrangements based on organizational control, lines of authority,or technical domain.These arrangements determine how power, roles, and responsibilities are assigned and how workis managed across different levels. Theorganization may be divided into internal groupsbased on functional areas, such as HR, IT, finance, marketing, etc.
●    Divisional Divisionally based organizations arrangetheir activities around market, product, or geographicalgroups. Each division may beresponsible for its own accounting, salesand marketing,engineering, production, etc.
# c, }( `1 l8 |●   Matrix Reporting relationships are organizedas a grid or matrix,with pools of people whocan move across teams as needed. Employees in this structure often have dual reporting relationships; for example,both to a line manager and to a product, project, or programme of work.2 X# M' a/ a5 W3 T' }9 P% t
●    Flat Someorganizations reducehierarchical reporting lines because they are seen as barriersthat hinder decision-making. As the organization grows,these structures becomea challenge to maintain.
0 l  x' c: i. u5 b$ HThe key differences betweenthe various organizational structures can be described using the following characteristics:. x: O, |# U8 M" B
●   grouping/teaming  criteria (function/product/territory/customer,etc.)
) [1 k0 V& @) u●   location (co-located/distributed)% L" H1 k+ H) M8 H  N
●    relationships with value streams(responsible forspecific activities or fullyresponsible for theend-to-end value stream)  f2 K. G# |: x& {2 u8 p
●    team members’ responsibility and authority (command-and-control or self-driven teams)- x5 X) S% R1 c
●   sourcing ofcompetencies (levelof integration with teams externalto the organization).
/ ]; i8 r$ [: sHistorically, organizational structureshave been functional and hierarchical in nature, with military-style linesof command and control.
9 k  D  c  @9 N" T; \. PIn the digital serviceeconomy, agilityand resilience are vitalfor an organization’s success. Organizations must adopt new ways of structuring their resources and competencies. Common approaches include:
- T3 t9 e  y$ F3 d/ P●    the faster and moreflexible allocation of resources to new or more important tasks. Matrix organizationalstructures are adeptat allocating or reallocating resources to different value streams, projects, products, or customers. This is often combinedwith outsourcing arrangements to ensure an increase of resources and competencies whennecessary.) l) G/ k+ G) l0 L
●    permanent, simplemulti-competent teams that areassigned to workexclusively on a product. This may resultin occasions when teams are unoccupied, but it ensures a high availability of teams for the development and management of products.: q* F4 Y; o: [, ?0 H  x
In order to adaptto more flexible and responsive waysof working, such as Agile and DevOps, many organizations have adjustedtheir organizational structures. This includes ensuring that a leader’s role is closer to that of a ‘servant’. It also involves creating cross-functionalteams, which can be achieved by applying matrix and flatstructures.  ?) x2 s4 u' D; J7 b* A# _
Organizational structure changes should be managed carefully, as they can cause major cultural challenges within the organization if handledbadly. It is usefulto refer to the ITIL guidingprinciples and the organizationalchange management practice for guidance.# n0 y3 l& U4 m# i" q4 T* n( R
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