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Practice_Architecture management ITIL 4架构管理实践

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发表于 2020-4-20 15:35:08 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
返回 ITIL 4理论与实践整体知识体系中文版发布文件汇总
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组织的架构应该进行优化以实现并支持其策略。这将需要目标架构模型。
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为了制定有效且现实的目标架构,架构师需要了解以下内容:) T+ x" V' W) m8 a
●        组织的策略及其当前的性能或绩效9 t  u8 O! r. U
●        组织的当前架构,优点和限制
- b: y* s$ b7 }3 C; C7 y1 C! t$ w●        主要痛点及其对架构的映射
* e9 a+ `% w) |●        组织的产品组合和持续的发展
% Z: @5 t7 d- \* K- m* s' k●        环境因素和趋势. W( W0 p) J  n  c2 z
●        技术趋势,风险和机遇6 {. C$ `' i6 Z2 D8 |/ `
●        其他相关趋势和因素。
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: Z; `$ r5 F# \/ [分析这些区域将使您从架构的角度了解组织的当前状态和期望状态。基于此可以开发当前和目标的架构模型。架构的效果可以根据组织的策略以以下某些特性表示:. p* d) _4 A% ~" v
●        可扩展性- z5 [; u6 I6 L# k: O+ x
●        成本-效果
. x: D: o# E" T  ^3 {●        与其他组织的兼容性
' D0 M" O  ^" y●        合规性符合规定
6 Q6 d0 D( \3 J0 c& [●        敏捷
3 e, M" _! W3 S●        可持续性
/ `/ n; s8 f  f! |●        安全。! O. g" f$ Z* [8 c9 R9 C% j
这不是确定的清单。可以创建其他目标来确保架构有效。
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由于组织的策略可能会不断发展,因此架构建模不应该是孤立的工作。应将当前的架构模型更新为组件变更,并应根据策略的变化来审查目标架构模型。这些更新将启动架构路线图的评审(请参见2.4.2).3 M! M; t, n. g5 s1 w

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架构分析和目标架构规划与其他实践紧密结合进行(有关这些实践的列表,请参见2.3)。重要的是要确保架构模型正确,现实,并且在利益相关者之间共享对当前和目标体系结构的理解。现实的架构规划基于对当前架构的充分理解,包括内部和外部利益相关者采用的遗留系统,约束,重要的业务功能和行为模式。同样重要的是要考虑其他要求和约束,例如预算,立法等。最后,对技术前景(包括新兴技术和行业趋势)的充分了解非常重要。
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除了对目标架构的描述之外,路线图还应包括以下方面的建议和要求:分类法,标准,指南,程序,模板和工具,这些构架将用于具有重要结构意义的举措(例如生产和服务设计),项目等等。这包括将推荐的架构控件集成到相关实践和价值流中,以确保组织的活动遵守商定的开发方向。
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确保组织的架构不断发展到目标状态
( H0 B( z( r3 B4 S为了确保组织正在演变为目标架构,创建了架构路线图。路线图是针对从当前架构到目标架构的变更设计的计划的集合。在适当情况下,可以将这些计划作为计划或项目进行管理。根据变更的性质,实现架构变更涉及多个利益相关者和实践。架构管理实践确保所实施的更改遵循商定的路线图,并支持组织向其目标架构的演进。, z- H& ]# w& N, I

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架构管理实践活动的另一个重要方面是,通过遵循推荐的分类法体系结构,标准,指南,过程,模板和工具,确保对组织的资源,产品和服务所做的更改支持架构的发展。它们也不应与架构的要求和原理相抵触。这意味着每个服务价值流都涉及架构管理实践,其中包括引入新组件,新第三方服务或影响架构的其他更改。
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2.5        关键指标        " p4 s, r0 U- O9 R9 P' {8 X
应该在每个实践所贡献的价值流的背景内评估ITIL惯例的效果和性能或绩效。与任何工具的性能或绩效一样,只能在应用程序的背景内评估实践的性能或绩效。但是,设计和质量的工具可能会有很大差异,这些差异定义了工具的潜力,或根据用途使用能力才有效。有关度量标准,关键性能或绩效指标(KPI)的其他指南以及可以帮助您解决此问题的其他技术,请参见度量和报告实践指南。, T5 ?2 Z: M9 ^1 G- n

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! g: [) ^% A6 k5 v3 x架构管理实践的关键指标已映射到其PSF。它们可以用作价值流的背景中的KPI,以评估实践对这些价值流的效果和效率的贡献。表2.2中给出了一些关键指标的示例。
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" ~4 }. j6 F1 `) y表2.2 实践成功因素的关键指标示例1 {0 w/ X0 z8 ?* [
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* L7 @! S- P4 p% ?# h. o" w实践成功因素        关键指标  y8 l$ v& U9 _* d, m! n

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确保目标架构支持组织的策略        2 m% [( B7 e" \; L3 G- T
实现对目标架构的约定要求9 W; P$ h3 f) w" V
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0 W0 k5 U' T3 @5 ]架构约束的数量和影响限制了组织策略的实现0 Y# U% o1 ~4 }* u9 T
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! a) m+ I8 g- ~8 A: O( R% Q架构不支持的战略决策的数量和影响
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基于内部和独立评估,目标架构的完整性和质量
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策略更新和更新之间的延迟时间和影响
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% u2 i3 t1 ]5 ?确保组织的架构不断发展到目标状态        实施的变更数量和影响未遵循议定的目标架构9 S' e  [$ L  k0 ^8 _

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尚未评估与议定的架构符合性的体系结构上的重大更改的数量和影响$ O  W/ _% n3 S0 R, C, I
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6 |7 i( @) Y6 T9 N+ s7 h( R架构路线图的实现进度        ! z4 k& m, O& a* t1 Z! `& D

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Ensuring that the organization's strategy is supported with a target architecture
6 X; |  e7 @: L$ q& T8 }The organization’s architecture should be optimized to achieve and support its strategy. This will require a target architecture model.
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To develop an effective and realistic target architecture, architects need to understand the following:
9 ~& r- ]" P9 h% R●        the organization’s strategy and its current performance
" {0 K1 Z6 y4 q4 y●        the organization’s current architecture, benefits, and constraints
0 r$ G% {# g7 Z+ u7 E' A% w●        major pain points and its mapping to the architecture9 @5 c4 [3 v$ G& k* O2 V
●        the organization’s portfolios and ongoing developments" e+ u, {9 s! i
●        environmental factors and trends" R5 ~- s* o% L, {* w, k8 F
●        technology trends, risks, and opportunities
( a  F9 q' V) D. u●        other relevant trends and factors.
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Analysing these areas will lead to an understanding of the current and desired state of the organization from the architecture perspective. Current and target architecture models can be developed based on this. The effectiveness of the architecture can be expressed in some of the following characteristics, depending on the organization’s strategy:, C7 r7 U2 D6 V! |1 g) S( Z  }' ~
●        scalability1 k+ N' S. o- q  b6 q  \% k
●        cost-effectiveness! n" r3 l4 v6 x; W; p. D
●        compatibility with other organizations! q) G. u% V+ ~' p
●        compliance to regulations4 F8 F, K2 N9 \* v2 n
●        agility3 A8 H2 v  \- z9 A/ W
●        sustainability4 N; j* E+ F" Y6 a. k
●        security.
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7 U  s& |2 a% C4 ?2 ~This is not a definitive list; other objectives can be created to ensure that the architecture is effective.! l: @$ P7 r5 v4 l. R8 @% R

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) N2 P* o& J" ]4 {% u! T6 S( yAs the strategies of organizations are likely to continually evolve, architecture modelling should not be an isolated exercise. The current architecture model should be updated as the components change, and the target architecture model should be reviewed as the strategy changes. These updates initiate a review of an architecture road map (see 2.4.2).
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! b: {+ i( l* I- g' Y# \  pArchitecture analysis and target architecture planning are performed in close conjunction with other practices (see 2.3 for a list of these practices). It is important to ensure that the architecture models are correct, realistic, and that the understanding of the current and target architectures is shared among stakeholders. Realistic architecture planning is based on a good understanding of the current architecture, including legacy systems, constraints, vital business functions and behaviour patterns, adopted by internal and external stakeholders. It is also important to take other requirements and constraints into account, such as budgets, legislation, and so on. Finally, good knowledge of the technology landscape, including emerging technologies and industry trends, is important.
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As well as a description of the target architecture, the road map should include recommendations and requirements for: taxonomy, standards, guidelines, procedures, templates and tools, which are to be used in architecturally important initiatives, such as product and service design, changes, projects, and so on. This includes integrating the recommended architecture controls into the relevant practices and value streams, to ensure that the activities of the organization adhere to the agreed development direction.
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: V/ V9 s' }1 H/ J  Ensuring that the organization's architecture is continually evolving to the target state8 [+ I9 n8 U4 J: b7 {/ Y$ Y9 v
To ensure that an organization is evolving to the target architecture, an architecture road map is created. The road map is a collection of initiatives designed to change from the current architecture to the target architecture. Where appropriate, these initiatives can be managed as programmes or projects. Realizing the architectural changes involves several stakeholders and practices, depending on the nature of the changes. The architecture management practice ensures that the implemented changes follow the agreed road map and support the organization’s evolution to its target architecture.
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; C+ k6 y, N1 v% J5 QAnother important aspect of the architecture management practice activities is to ensure that the changes made to the organization’s resources, products, and services support the architecture’s evolution, by following the recommended architectural taxonomy, standards, guidelines, procedures, templates, and tools. They also should not contradict the architecture’s requirements and principles. This implies that the architecture management practice is involved in every service value stream that includes the introduction of new components, new third-party services, or other changes that affect the architecture.
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2.5        KEY METRICS        1 G, J2 z# ]1 r+ P  [7 |1 N
The effectiveness and performance of the ITIL practices should be assessed within the context of the value streams to which each practice contributes. As with the performance of any tool, the practice’s performance can only be assessed within the context of its application. However, tools can differ greatly in design and quality, and these differences define a tool’s potential or capability to be effective when used according to its purpose. Further guidance on metrics, key performance indicators (KPIs), and other techniques that can help with this can be found in the measurement and reporting practice guide.
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% Y4 u' D. g; H1 uKey metrics for the architecture management practice are mapped to its PSFs. They can be used as KPIs in the context of value streams to assess the contribution of the practice to the effectiveness and efficiency of those value streams. Some examples of key metrics are given in Table 2.2.
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  a& u  z6 y3 S) f3 x7 yTable 2.2 Example of key metrics for the practice success factors3 {% z  {6 s4 m0 }! c
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Practice success factors        Key metrics% z% l1 B1 L) z4 o* N+ k
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Ensuring that the organization's strategy is supported with a target architecture        $ O5 F" a% {: l2 q+ h7 p; |2 Y
Fulfilment of the agreed requirements for the target architecture
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Number and impact of architectural constraints limiting realization of the organization’s strategy
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, [' y4 I) {' u+ ]" x% tNumber and impact of strategic decisions not supported by the architecture
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/ C1 ^% ?" }( u6 ^0 C* Z& V: E/ D$ tCompleteness and quality of the target architecture, based on internal and independent assessments; o; J# l9 O; e  I+ W
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Duration and impact of delays between the strategy update andthe alignment of the target architecture        
; H; ^2 D$ f+ u3 o% I$ T* @8 ]Ensuring that the organization's architecture is continually evolving to the target state        The number and impact of changes implemented that did not follow the agreed target architecture  [+ R" X* @1 ~
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; u5 |" m4 d1 O3 o6 MNumber and impact of architecturally significant changes that have not been assessed for conformance to the agreed architecture
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3 q! X+ y$ s) k3 d; v# rProgress in fulfilling the architecture road map        6 p, u( t0 o0 Q8 H% N* m

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